Gordan Masnjak: U Hrvatskoj je započela renesansa konoplje

Povratak konoplji, za koju možemo reći da je othranila generacije naših roditelja, predstavljat će značajan dio gospodarstva svake zemlje koja prepozna njezine potencijale

Gordan Masnjak autor je aktivističkog projekta ‘Zeleno sunce’ kojim se od 2011. zalaže za ostvarivanje ekološkog pristupa u društvu. Ovaj inženjer organizacije i upravljanja osnivač je i projekta ‘Kronoplja’, kojem je cilj zakonska regulativa sadnje, uzgoja, proizvodnje i prerade konoplje. Bavi se i edukacijom o održivom i pametnom razvoju, zelenom i niskougljičnom gospodarstvu te socijalno-odgovornom privređivanju. Razgovarali smo povodom nedavnog simpozija ‘Konoplja – tjelesno i duševno zdravlje’ koji je održan u organizaciji Hrvatskog bioetičkog društva, Znanstvenog centra izvrsnosti za integrativnu bioetiku, udruge Kronoplja, udruge Medicinska konoplja i Radio Studenta.

Kako je ‘ponovno otkrivena’ medicinska važnost konoplje?

Medicinska konoplja, odnosno kanabis ima svoju povijest još od 1840., kad ju je irski liječnik William O’Shaughnessy uveo u medicinsku primjenu u Europi. Konoplja je civilizacijska biljka, s mnogo korisnih primjena u svakodnevnoj uporabi, kao hrana i lijek. Povratak konoplji, uz današnje tehnološke mogućnosti, predstavljat će značajan dio gospodarstva svake zemlje, koja prepozna njezine potencijale. Neki od poznatijih sastojaka konoplje (THCCBD) čine je pogodnom za ublažavanje bolova kod niza bolesti. Sve je to potvrdila i moderna medicina, a istraživanja se i dalje nastavljaju. Nekoliko zapadnih država već je omogućilo pacijentima uporabu proizvoda od medicinskog kanabisa, a nekoliko ih je poduzelo korake prema dekriminalizaciji rekreativne uporabe kanabisa. Ovakvi preokreti daju naznake budućem jedinstvenom sporazumu o opojnim drogama, kojim bi prestale važiti zabrane korištenja kanabisa, a zakonodavstvo koje to slijedi velikim će dijelom ovisiti o kvaliteti dostupnih znanstvenih istraživanja.

Simpsonova metoda

Koje pozitivne učinke konoplja ima na duševno i tjelesno zdravlje čovjeka?

Poznato je da je u zdravom tijelu i zdrav duh, a konoplja je primjer dobrog utjecaja na tjelesno i duševno zdravlje. Konoplja je postala i popularna prehrambena namirnica. Sjemenka joj je lako probavljiva i prava je riznica fitonutrijenata, od vlakana, esencijalnih aminokiselina, masnih kiselina omega 3 i 6, do vitamina B i E te minerala (kalcija, kalija, željeza, magnezija). Također, sadrži i visokovrijedne biljne proteine, bez glutena. Od konoplje se rade hladno prešana ulja, brašno i drugi proizvodi. Možemo reći da se radi o superhrani. Zdravlje, naravno, uključuje i ono duševno. A danas, u ovo ludo vrijeme, na svakom smo koraku izloženi stresu koji utječe na psihofizičko zdravlje. Narušavanje unutarnje ravnoteže manifestira se i u vidu različitih bolesti. Neke od njih su posttraumatski stresni poremećaj i multipla skleroza, koje se ne mogu u potpunosti liječiti alopatskom medicinom, već je primjereniji holistički pristup, odnosno tretiranje bolesti putem alternativne medicine, uz znanja iz moderne medicine.

Rick Simpson je osmislio metodu kojom se bolesti liječe uljem kanabisa…

Simpsonova metoda je postala poznata jer je promovirala uporabu medicinske konoplje na stanja koje je bilo teško kontrolirati lijekovima moderne medicine, zbog njihove skupoće i popratnih pojava. Bili su to glavni razlozi zbog kojih je alternativna medicina, korištenjem medicinske konoplje, vratila značaj konoplje kao lijeka, kakav je u medicini imala krajem 19. i početkom 20. stoljeća. Rick Simpson je osmislio pripravu i korištenje ulja kanabisa te zagovara korištenje kanabisa u osobne svrhe, od uzgoja do pripreme. A primjena kanabisa za određene medicinske indikacije, kao lijeka za umanjenje bolova i olakšavanje teških stanja, svakako ga je učinila prikladnim za sve koji su ga voljni koristiti radi zdravlja. Ukratko, lijekovi na biljnoj osnovi trebaju služiti onome čemu ih je priroda namijenila – dobrobiti ljudima i životinjama.

Lani je u Hrvatskoj legalizirano korištenje konoplje za tretiranje određenih simptoma pojedinih bolesti. Kako hrvatsko zakonodavstvo regulira tu materiju?

Prema današnjim propisima EU-a razlikujemo konoplju za industrijsku i medicinsku uporabu. Osnovni kriterij je sadržaj THC-a, kojeg u suhoj tvari industrijske konoplje smije biti do 0,2 posto. Zasad su uzgoj medicinskog kanabisa, njegova prodaja i korištenje u Hrvatskoj ilegalni, a dozvoljeni lijekovi, bazirani na medicinskom kanabisu, podliježu liječničkoj proceduri i receptu. Konoplja je kod nas obuhvaćena Zakonom o suzbijanju zlouporabe droga, u kojem se industrijska ne razlikuje od medicinske konoplje, koja smije imati više od 0,2 posto THC-a. Pravilnikom o uvjetima za uzgoj konoplje, načinu prijave uzgoja maka i uvjetima za posjedovanje opojnih droga u veterinarstvu, Ministarstvo poljoprivrede otvorilo je mogućnost uzgoja industrijske konoplje. Pravilnikom o mjerilima za razvrstavanje lijekova te o propisivanju i izdavanju lijekova na recept, 15. listopada 2016. u Hrvatskoj je prvi put omogućeno propisivanje lijekova baziranih na medicinskoj konoplji za ublažavanje tegoba pacijenata oboljelih od multiple skleroze, karcinoma, epilepsije i AIDS-a.

Izmjena Zakona o suzbijanju zlouporabe droga, koja će omogućiti cjelovito korištenje konoplje za industrijske potrebe, pripremljena je za zakonsku proceduru, a Ministarstvo zdravlja pripremilo je zakonski okvir za primjenu kanabisa u medicinske svrhe. Od Povjerenstva za analizu i preporuku primjene konoplje i kanabinoida u medicinske svrhe očekuje se daljnje proširenje liste medicinskih indikacija, gdje je opravdano korištenje lijekova i pripravaka na osnovi kanabisa. Tek s osnivanjem državne agencije za medicinski kanabis ostvarit će se preduvjeti za uzgoj i preradu medicinske konoplje u Hrvatskoj.

Apostoli konoplje

Koliko hrvatski građani na konoplju gledaju samo kao na drogu?

U dvije godine projekta ‘Kronoplja’ javnost smo upoznali s konopljom, njezinom poviješću i ulogom u sadašnjosti i budućnosti. I uspjeli smo izgraditi pozitivan odnos građana prema njoj. Hvala svim ‘apostolima konoplje’ koji su od 2012. krenuli sa sadnjom, uzgojem i preradom industrijske konoplje, nakon što je dopuštena sjetva sorti konoplje sa sortne liste EU-a. Na hrvatskim se poljima sada uzgaja konoplja, a njezini proizvodi su prisutni i izvan Hrvatske. Mogu reći da se odnos prema drogama kod nas tematski i terminološki mijenja. Shodno tome i uloga medicinskog kanabisa kao lake droge, u smislu ljekovite upotrebe. Poznato je da su i neki odobreni lijekovi rađeni na osnovi droga, kao što je mak, u legalnoj uporabi i dostupni u ljekarnama.

Kakvu je ulogu konoplja nekoć imala na području regije?

Prostori današnje Hrvatske i susjednih zemalja bili su poznati po uzgoju konoplje. Tako je 1950-ih proizvodnja konoplje na ovom području bila treća u svijetu, iza Rusije i Italije. Možemo reći da je konoplja othranila generacije naših roditelja. Bila je prva industrijska biljka koja je kod nas imala razne namjene, od tekstilne do papirnate, čime je predstavljala značajan udio u našoj industriji, koja je nestajala kako je i konoplja nestajala s naših polja. Zadnja njezina sjetva u Hrvatskoj zabilježena je 1995. U to vrijeme Europa je ušla u uzgoj i proizvodnju industrijske konoplje. Sve do 2012. u Hrvatskoj se po pitanju konoplje nije ništa proizvodilo, no tada je započela ‘renesansa konoplje’.

Izvor: www.portalnovosti.com

2017-10-30T09:37:42+00:00

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