Prednosti konoplje za okoliš

Industrijska, ljekovita i komercijalna svojstva konoplje su poznata čovječanstvu od davnina ali njene prednosti za okoliš su otkrivene tek u novije vrijeme. Mnoge industrije u potrazi za održivim i ekološki prihvatljivim procesima se okreću konoplji kao odgovoru. Njen uzgoj ne treba nikakvu posebnu klimu ili tlo, tako da se može naći u svim dijelovima svijeta. Konoplja pruža alternativni i učinkovitiji izvor energije, uglavnom u 3 sektora:

gorivoGorivo
Drvenasti dio konoplje je siromašan vlagom, brzo se suši, te je učinkovit izvor biomase bogate metanolom. Otpadni produkti proizvedeni pomoću ulja konoplje su dobar izvor etanola. Metanol i etanol su proizvedeni od konoplje kroz učinkovit i ekonomičan postupak termo-kemijske pretvorbe. Jedno jutro konoplje daje 1.000 galona ili 3,785 litara goriva. Konoplja omogućuje manju ovisnost o fosilnim gorivima, koji su neobnovljivi izvori energije i neće biti u stanju zadovoljiti rastuće globalne zahtjeve, gledano dugoročno.

 

papirPapir
Papir se može izraditi od konoplje. Kako konoplja ima nizak sadržaj lignina u odnosu na drvo, može se pretvoriti u kašu brže i lakše; ova prirodno svijetla pulpa ne treba klor za izbjeljivanje, koji se koristi u tradicionalnim tvornicama papira i oslobađa otrovnu tvar zvanu dioksin u okoliš. Konoplja je također kompatibilna sa novom bazom sojinog veziva koje je daleko bolje nego žestoka veziva na bazi formaldehida. Time se smanjuje onečišćenje zraka i opasnost za ljudsko zdravlje i životinjski svijet. Kvaliteta papira dobivenog od konoplje je izdržljiviji, dugotrajniji papir koji ne gubi svoju boju čak i nakon niza godina. Daleko više se može dobiti iz svake biljke konoplje s obzirom da se njen papir može reciklirati 7 ili 8 puta, u odnosu na samo 3 puta za papir na bazi drva.

 

gradevinskiGrađevinski materijal
Korisnost konoplje se proširila i u izgradnji. Vlaknaste ploče izrađene od mješavine na bazi konoplje su jače i lakše od one izrađene od drva. Kombinacija vlakana konoplje i vapna rezultira zvučnim i toplinskim izolacijskim materijalom koji je jači i lakši od betona. Zamjenom drva i betona, količina otpadnih tvari na gradilištu je bitno smanjena. Kuće izgrađene korištenjem proizvoda od konoplje imaju bolju toplinsku izolaciju pa će manje goriva biti korišteno za grijanje interijera. Bio-plastika može biti izrađena od dugih konopljinih vlakana, koja su gotovo jednako jaka kao fiberglass. Konoplja je ekonomičan građevinski materijal koji se može reciklirati, jeftiniji od stakla i siguran za radnike.

Konoplja je toliko bolja za okoliš

Zamjenjuje stabla kao izvor sirovine za drvenu građu i papir, čime drastično pomaže očuvanju šuma. Drveću su potrebne godine kako bi izrasla, a urod konoplje može se uzgojiti u nekoliko mjeseci. Samo jedno jutro konoplje može proizvesti više papira godišnje nego 4 jutra stabala.

Upotreba

Kod korištenja konoplje kao goriva ugljični dioksid se ispušta u zrak ali to se apsorbira u narednom nasadu kulture i to već 120 dana nakon sadnje. Ovaj brzi rast izbjegava nakupljanje ugljičnog dioksida. Također, konoplja je vrlo lisnata biljka i time doprinosi visokoj razini kisika u atmosferi u toku njihovog rasta između 20 i 40% i time višestruko nadoknađuje gubitak kisika koji je utrošen njenim sagorijevanjem kao goriva što zauzvrat smanjuje neželjene učinke globalnog zatopljenja, kiselih kiša i osiromašenost ozonskog sloja koje utječe na okoliš.

Onečišćenje zraka je smanjeno budući je konoplja prirodno otporna na štetočine i ne trebaju pesticidi i herbicidi kojima bi se špricala. Potrebno je vrlo malo gnojiva budući da lišće u izobilju pada na tlo i oslobađa potrebne hranjive tvari i minerale čime se stvara bolja rahlost tla za oranje. Zna se da pamuk i lan konzumiraju 50% od svih pesticida. Konoplja zamjenjuje pamuk kao sirovinu u proizvodnji papira i tkanine i lanenog vlakna ili sjeme za stočnu hranu, životinjsku stelju i papir.

Obogaćuje tlo. Usjevi konoplje rastu gusto i snažno. Sunčeva svjetlost ne može prodrijeti kroz lišće biljke do tla, a to znači da je urod bez korova. Njegovi duboki korijeni koriste podzemne vode i smanjuju salinitet. Također, erozija gornjeg sloja tla je ograničena, čime se smanjuje onečišćenje voda. Korijeni daju dušik i druge hranjive tvari tlu. Nakon berbe, ova zemlja ima odlične kompostne dodatke za druge biljke a uzgoj konoplje može pratiti rotacija s pšenicom ili sojom. U stvari, isto tlo može se koristiti za rast konoplje dugi niz godina, bez gubljenja svoje visoke kvalitete. Konoplje iz tla upija otrovne metale emitirane iz nuklearnih elektrana, kao što su bakar, kadmij, olovo i živa.

Tkanine izrađene od konoplje ne sadrže kemijske tragove, te su stoga sigurnije za potrošače. Čak i tkanina koja sadrži samo 50% konoplje može zadržati UV zrake sunca dalje od kože.

Proizvodi od konoplje mogu se reciklirati, ponovno upotrijebiti i 100% su biorazgradivi. Brzina rasta biljke je dovoljno brza kako bi zadovoljila sve veću industrijsku i komercijalnu potražnju. Prebacivanje na proizvode od konoplje pomoći će u očuvanju okoliša ostavljajući čišći i zeleniji planet za sljedeću generaciju.

Izvor: hempbenefits.org

2017-10-12T08:49:26+00:00

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